Microbial drugs play an important role as widely used clinical drugs, especially in anti-infective, anti-tumor, hypolipidemic and anti-organ transplant rejection, which make microbial fermentation technology be widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. While microbial fermentation pharmaceuticals use microbial technology to synthesize certain products based on the microbial reaction process and rely on the growth, reproduction and metabolism of microbial organisms in the reactor through a highly integrated new integrated technology. Then, it is extracted and refined by separation and purification technology, and finally the preparation is molded to realize the production of the drug product.
The currently popular microbial drug development technologies mainly include the following:
. Genetic engineering technology. The so-called genetic engineering technology refers to the basic principle of biosynthesis in microbial pharmacy, genetic analysis and transformation of the microbial drug-producing bacteria developed at the same molecular level, and the process of creating new microbial drugs through genetic recombination, cloning etc. By using genetic technology, the specific gene of the microbial drug-producing bacteria can be cloned into other microbial medicinal strains of the same chemical structure type and similar gene chain type, and different new drugs of the same type can be synthesized.
. Combine biotransformation technology, which is a compound that uses a combination of an enzyme or a microorganism processing a specific transformation function to obtain a structural diversity. This method is effective in finding new derivatives from known compounds and making simple compounds more complex.
. Combine biosynthesis techniques. The combined biosynthesis technology can be used to exchange the genes encoding some of the enzymes involved in the microbial secondary metabolite synthesis pathway, thereby producing some new non-native gene clusters and synthesizing many new “non-natural natural compounds”. At present, combinatorial biosynthesis has become a hot spot and an important development direction in the field of international pharmaceutical research. For example, the combined biosynthesis of polyketones, the reorganization and transformation of erythromycin have achieved remarkable results.
. Ribosome engineering technology. Ribosomes are the site of synthesis of proteins, and the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites depends on the function of ribosomes. Therefore, the effects of ribosomal mutations on protein synthesis and secondary metabolite synthesis are profound. This technology has been successfully applied to the selection of antibiotics to produce strains and to discover new antibiotics.
. High-throughput drug screening technology. For large numbers of samples, high-throughput drug screening techniques can be used to rapidly identify compounds that interact significantly with molecular targets in the sample, and the selected compound samples are labeled, identified as lead compounds, and subsequent samples screening will eventually lead to the development of all selected compounds for conversion into new drugs for clinical use.
Biosynthesis in microbial pharmacy is a key content and the main development direction of microbial pharmacy in the future. Biosynthesis is the main direction of current pharmaceutical research. More than half of the drugs in the world have been produced through biosynthesis. This method of synthesis is far easier than the traditional way of chemical synthesis and can effectively improve economic benefits. Future biosynthesis will inevitably be more widely used, in addition to the various antibiotics we are familiar with, such as: penicillin, streptomycin and gentamicin, many of the drugs used to treat other diseases will also be biosynthetic. In addition to the continuous development of microbial pharmaceutical research, research and development will focus on some incurable diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, AIDS, cancer and other fields.
At present, microbial drugs have accounted for more than 20% of global drugs, and with the emergence of super-resistant bacteria, new microbial drug research and development has become an inevitable requirement. The use of microbial fermentation technology can provide new means for the development of new drugs, improve the efficacy of drugs, and reduce the side effects of drugs.