Documented increases in the prevalence of myopia and high myopia worldwide are a serious public health concern. Data to inform research, clinical practice and public health policy must be produced urgently. The participants in this joint consultation agreed on recommendations for consistent use of international terminology for obtaining internationally comparable, accurate data on the prevalence of myopia and high myopia. They agreed on de nitions of myopia and high myopia and a description of the pathological consequences of myopia. They further agreed that myopia and high myopia should be included as attributable causes of vision impairment in epidemiological surveys, and that the term “myopic macular degeneration” should be used to categorize the blinding retinal diseases associated with high myopia, in preference to the many other terms in current use. The consultation provided an opportunity to categorize myopic defects, evaluate the evidence on myopia control strategies and identify gaps in knowledge that must be filled urgently as a basis for evidence-based strategies to reduce the prevalence of high myopia and associated vision impairment.