Cervical cancer is caused due to uncontrolled division of abnormal or cancerous cell growth in cervix region (lower uterus part) that leads to vagina in female reproductive tract. Cervical cancer occurs in sexually active women and is clinically defined by unpleasant or foul vaginal discharge, pain in pelvis, vaginal pain and bleeding during sex.
99% of cervical cancer cases, over the globe are prevalent due to Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) from an infected individual. HPV infection brings about DNA mutation in cervical cells (glandular and squamous cells) that alter cell growth resulting into uncontrolled cell growth to form tumours. Worldwide out of 100 known genotypes of HPV about 13 high risk HPV types leads to cervical cancer while there is strongest association between infection and invasive cervical cancer for type HPV-16 and HPV-18 causing 70% of total cervical cancer cases. While other important cause for cervical cancer other than HPV is exposure to DES (diethylstilbestrol) drug while being in womb.
The most efficient test for detection of cervical cancer is Pap Smear test while other test include HPV test, Endocervical curettage, Colposcopy, and Biopsy. The early detection of precancerous cells and proper treatment can help prevent its progression into cervical cancer. According to AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) the treatment of cervical cancer depends upon the stage of cancer which is defined by the size, depth and metastasis, thus diagnosis of cervical cancer stage plays most important role in treatment of cervical cancer. Common methods of treatment for early stage cancer include surgery or radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy while radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy often in combination is used in treatment of advanced cervical cancer stages.
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Cervical Cancer Treatment Market: Drivers and Restraints
It has been stated by National Cancer Institute that cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer and also ranks fourth in high mortality rate in women. It has also been found that HIV infected women are at such a high risk of cervical cancer that it is denoted or designated as AIDS defining condition. High prevalence rate, unprotected or unsafe sex, ignorance of diagnostic test to prevent invasive cancer are major factors in cervical cancer market drive. While high risk of HPV infection in HIV infected women, more disease burden in developing or low income countries and availability of advanced and variety of treatment drives market for cervical cancer treatment.
Whereas in last decade there has been significant growth in prophylactic market in developed countries and awareness initiative taken by government to educate women about early diagnostic test and vaccines. This helped in prevention of HPV infection and also cervical cancer progression into aggressive or advanced stages thus restraining cervical cancer treatment market. Readily available FDA approved vaccines such as Gardasil and Cervarix which are much cheaper and readily available than the treatment brings negative impact on cervical cancer treatment mostly in developed countries.
Cervical Cancer Treatment Market: Segmentation
The cervical cancer treatment market is classified on the basis of disease indication, types of treatment, product type, end user and geography.
Based on disease indication the cervical cancer treatment market is segmented into the following: (by FIGO- International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics),
- Pre-malignant lesions- Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN-1, CIN-2, CIN-3).
- Early invasive stage (IA – IB1 – IIA1).
- Advanced invasive stage (IB2 – IIA2 – IIB – IIIA – IIIB – IVA .
Based on treatment type, the cervical cancer treatment market is segmented into the following:
- Simple hysterectomy.
- Cold knife conization.
- LEEP- Loop electrosurgical excision procedure
- Laser surgery.
- Cone biopsy.
- Radical trachelectomy.
- Radiation therapy (Brachytherapy-BT and External beam therapy-EBT).
- Chemotherapy (cisplatin, carboplatin, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, gemcitabine, bevacizumab etc).
- Targeted therapy (bevacizumab, Pazopanib).
- Hormone therapy (oestrogen, progesterone, progestogens and testosterone).
Based on end user, the cervical cancer treatment market is segmented into the following:
- Cancer Palliative care clinics.
- Diagnostic centers.
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Cervical Cancer Treatment Market: Overview
Cervical cancer treatment market holds a larger share as it is one of the most prevalent cancer amongst women all over the world. American Cancer Society had estimated that there will be about 12,990 new cases of cervical cancer while 4,120 women would die of cervical cancer in 2016. Increasing prevalence, awareness and advancement in treatment and variety of treatments available drives market for cervical cancer treatment. Cervical cancer is a well known secondary infection after HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection and HIV infected women are the most high risk population for cervical cancer thus a major risk factor for cervical cancer. Thus AIDS plays major role in cervical cancer treatment market due to larger population (50%) without HAART treatment, unprotected or insecured sex practices and government initiatives for such sexually transmitted diseases. It has been noted that 90% of cervical cancer cases are incident in developing countries thus being a major market for cervical cancer treatment.
Cervical Cancer Treatment Market: Regional Overview
Region wise, the global portable ultrasound bladder scanner market is classified into regions namely, North America, Latin America, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Japan, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa. In terms of size North America and Latin America holds highest market for cervical cancer treatment. Disease burden is more in developing and underdeveloped countries like China, India and Africa, than in developed countries like America and Europe. But still the cost for advanced cervical cancer treatment is more in developed countries inspite of having low or negligible incidence rate for cervical cancer treatment. This is due to such drugs being under patents used in chemotherapy for cancer treatment in US and Europe that holds largest market in terms of market share and size. Thus, treatment seen to have been 20 times expensive than in developing or low income countries. Developing countries show steady growth in cervical cancer treatment market. Also lack of education, lack of awareness, inadequate medical facilities and improper market network for cervical cancer treatment in countries like Africa hinders cervical growth market.
Cervical Cancer Treatment Market: Key Players
Some of the key players in cervical cancer treatment are Genentech USA, Hetero, GlaxoSmithKline, Eli Lilly and Company, Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Pfizer Inc, ALLERGAN, Biocon, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc, Actavis Pharma Company.
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