Peptide therapeutics has been around for decades, but recently there has been an incease in interest of the pharmaceutical companies. Targeted therapies have proven to be cost-effective with less toxicity than their biological equivalents. Cardiovascular peptides are used in the treatment of myocardial infarction, heart failure, hypertension, thrombosis, hemostasis, wound care and peripheral vascular diseases. Targeting peptides has also been identified as a technique for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. For example, blood measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal-proBNP (NT-proBNP) is used in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF).
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Peptides developed for the treatment and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases include lactokinins, casokinins, gliadin hydrolysate, wheat gluten hydrolysate, casoplatelin, casopiastrin and peptides derived from β-LG. These peptides have different therapeutic indications depending on their biological activity. For instance, lactokinins, casokinins and gliadin hydrolysate are used in the treatment of hypertension whereas; casoplatelin and casopiastrin are indicated for the treatment of thrombosis. The global cardiovascular peptides market can be analyzed from the therapeutic indication point of view and from the geographical aspect. Based on the geography, the global cardiovascular peptides market is categorized in four major segments - North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and Rest of the World.
Research and development in this arena has surged significantly realizing the therapeutic efficacy of peptide-based active pharmaceutical ingredients. Companies are collaborating to expedite the development of new peptide-based pharmaceutical product. Nile Therapeutics Inc. and Capstone Therapeutics are working in collaboration with American Peptide Company to develop peptide-based therapies for cardiovascular diseases, specifically for heart failure. Nile’s CD-NP is a novel natriuretic peptide in the clinical development stage intended for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). This peptide is intended to reduce pressure between the heart and the lungs and improve kidney function while attenuating hypotension by having least effect on the systemic blood pressure. Positive results from the trials would lead to the development of a natriuretic peptide for cardiovascular disease with better efficacy than the current therapies.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) cardiovascular is the leading cause of death globally of which about 80% occur in the low- and middle-income countries. Moreover, it is projected to be the leading cause of death till 2030. Development of a targeted novel peptide for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, would improve the treatment regimen to a great extent. Life expectancy of patients would increase significantly.
Moreover, peptide therapeutics holds vast opportunities in the Asia Pacific and Latin American regions where cardiovascular disorders are a major cause of deaths. According to the Heart Foundation, cardiovascular is the leading cause of death in Australia which caused 43,946 deaths in 2012. Targeted cardiovascular peptide therapies would decrease the risk of heart failure by reducing the associated risks of peripheral arterial diseases, myocardial infarction and hypertension.
Significant benefits of peptides such as fewer immunogenicity issues than biologics and flexibility in terms of manufacturing all types of formulations have been the major reasons for increased interest of pharmaceutical companies in developing cardiovascular peptide therapeutics. However, short serum half-life, and sensitivity to serum and tissue proteases have been the major restraints for the commercialization of products in the market. This however, is would be addressed with development of new technologies creating a great potential for the future of cardiovascular treatment therapies.
Some of the key players involved in the global cardiovascular peptides market include F. Hoffmann La Roche, Merck, Nile Therapeutics Inc., Biocon, Nobex Corporation, Capstone Therapeutics and American Peptide Company.
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