Botulinum Toxin (BNT) is a neurotoxin produced by anaerobic, spore forming, Gram positive bacteria, Clostridium Botulinum. BNT is responsible for causing life-threatening disease in humans known as ’Botulism’, first described by Kerner J. in 1817. BNT have 7 identified subtypes named Botulinum toxin-A (BTN-A), Botulinum toxin-B (BTN-B), Botulinum toxin-C (BTN-C), Botulinum toxin-D (BTN-D), Botulinum toxin-E (BTN-E), BTN-F), and BTN-G. These seven neurotoxins have reported to be the most lethal toxins measured by LD50 of about 5ng/kg with unique specificity and structure. As per report published in Toxins journal on 15th March 2015, about 1 gram of purified BNT has capacity to kill a million humans on inhalation, if dispersed evenly, thus it has applications in bioterrorism. BNT was the first ever toxin to be employed for therapeutic use in clinical applications and since then is gaining momentum in many treatments. Botulinum toxin (BNT) was first used by Dr. Scott in 1980 for treatment of strabismus, by injecting toxin in intraocular muscles as an alternative to strabismus surgery.
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Till date there has been wide spectrum for clinical as well as cosmetic use of BNT, while it was first approved by the U.S FDA as early as in 1989 for treatment of strabismus, hemificial spasm, and blepharospam. Later on it was approved for cervical dystonia, axillary hyperhidrosis, chronic migraine, glabellar facial lines, and cosmetic use. Amongst seven types of BNT, botulinum toxin-A (BTN-A), and botulinum toxin-B (BTN-A) are the only ones available commercially as purified exotoxin variants, marketed by various names. BNT has its main applications in cosmetic industry. Since, botulinum toxin A (BNT-A) is being used for clinical purposes been used since 1967, its safety and efficacy is well established. The most commonly used commercially available botulinum toxin A (BNT-A) are ‘Botox’ and ‘Dysport’. Botox has is most commonly used and is most approved worldwide. Botulinum toxin B (BNT-B) is U.S FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved for treatment against hemifacial spasm (HFS) and cervical dystonia.
The global market holds immense potential and is anticipated to grow rapidly. Continuous research and development to provide efficient therapeutic intervention for a host of diseases has boosted the growth of the market. Several botulinum toxin (BNT) are in clinical phase and expected to drive the market in the near future. The Botulinum toxin (BNT) market is driven by rise in incidence of cosmetic surgeries due to improvement in lifestyle and increase in disposable income worldwide, global increase in geriatric population, growing awareness, potential benefits as an alternative treatment to surgeries, and overall therapeutic efficacy of botulinum toxin (BNT). According to 2014 WHO report, the number of therapeutic procedures in North America, Europe, and Asia Pacific are increasing every year. However, safety issues in treatment and overall potential toxicity of these agents, requirement of high capital investments and costly treatments, strict regulatory guidelines, and reimbursement policy issues are the key factors restraining the market. Moreover, the developing global economic conditions create a significant opportunity for the expansion of the market.
The global market can be classified based on toxin type, application, end-user, and region. In terms of toxin type, the market can be segmented into botulinum toxin A (BNT-A), and botulinum toxin B (BNT-B). Based on application, the market can be segmented into neurological disorders, cosmetics and others. In terms of end-user, the market can be segmented into hospitals, academic & research institutes, dermatological clinics, cosmetic centers and others.
Based on region, the market can be classified into Asia Pacific, Europe, Middle East & Africa, North America, and Latin America. Major players in the market are Allergan Plc., Speywood Pharmaceuticals, Merz Pharmaceuticals, Lanzhou Biological Products Institute, Elan Pharmaceuticals, Revance Therapeutics, Inc., and others.
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