Fosfomycin calcium is the calcium (Ca2+) salt preparation of fosfomycin. Fosfomycin belongs to the class of phosphonic antibiotics produced by certain Streptomyces species. Fosfomycin usually exists into three different forms fosfomycin calcium, fosfomycin tromethamine (a soluble salt), and fosfomycin disodium. Fosfomycin is a well known bactericidal antibiotic affecting the growth of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria by irreversibly inhibiting cell wall formation and early murein/peptidoglycan synthesis. Fosfomycin calcium has a unique mechanism of action. Fosfomycin inhibits the initial step in peptidoglycan biosynthesis.
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Fosfomycin inhibits UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase, the enzyme responsible for catalysis of the first committed step in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Fosfomycin has a broad range of activity against a wide range of gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Fosfomycin is highly active against gram negative bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and against gram positive pathogens such as Enterococcus and Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular formula of fosfomycin calcium is C3H5CaO4P. Fosfomycin calcium exists as white or yellow colored powder. Fosfomycin calcium is slightly soluble in water, practically insoluble in acetone, methanol and in methylene chloride. Fosfomycin calcium is also known as [(2R, 3S)-3-methyloxiranyl] phosphonic acid calcium salt.
Fosfomycin calcium is administered orally, thus it is also known as oral fosfomycin. Fosfomycin calcium is a fosfomycin antimicrobial agent with a characteristic structure. After oral administration, fosfomycin calcium is absorbed and excreted through the kidneys in unchanged form, without undergoing metabolism in the body. On the basis of this characteristic, fosfomycin calcium is indicated for the treatment of urinary tract diseases, including cystitis and pyelonephritis, particularly those caused by Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis.
Fosfomycin calcium has a very low protein binding ability. Due to this, fosfomycin calcium has fine distribution into tissues, achieving clinically relevant concentrations in kidneys, serum, prostate, lungs, bladder wall, inflamed tissues, cerebrospinal fluid, heart valves, abscess fluid, and bone. Fosfomycin calcium is used in combination with tobramycin to treat lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Fosfomycin calcium is growingly used as a veterinary medicine to treat diarrhea caused by coliform and salmonellosis in cows and pseudotuberculosis in perciformes. Fosfomycin calcium is used as an additive in feed or drinking water.
The ability of fosfomycin calcium to treat urinary tract infection, and in various veterinary infection treatments are acting as major drivers for the growth of fosfomycin calcium market across the globe. The threat of developing resistance to fosfomycin calcium during therapy can act as a restraining factor for the growth of fosfomycin calcium market. The global fosfomycin calcium market is predicted to grow at a single digit CAGR from 2014 to 2020.
Asia Pacific is projected to be the fastest growing market for fosfomycin calcium in the next six years. Possibly the prevalent reason for this is the growing demand for fosfomycin calcium from developing countries such as China and India. The key companies operating in the fosfomycin calcium market are largely focusing on growing economies for tapping their enormous market potential. The Asia Pacific market is expected to be followed closely by European market.
Some of the major companies operating in the global fosfomycin calcium market are Ercros S.A., Mingshui Fukang Chemical Co., Ltd., FarmaSino Pharmaceuticals (Jiangsu) Co., Ltd., Northeast Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd., China Sinopharm International Shanghai Co., Ltd., SINTOFARM FARMACEUTICI S.p.A., AdvaCarePharma, and Serendex Pharmaceuticals A/S.
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