Histone deacetylase (HDAC) are enzymes which remove acetyl groups from an N-acetyl lysine amino acid present on a histone, thus wrapping the DNA tightly by the histones. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) are compounds which interfere with this function of histone deacetylase. HDIs display promising potential in oncology for applications such as diagnosis, cancer detection and prognosis. HDIs are emerging class of oncology therapeutics for the treatment of solid and hematological malignancies. Based on the classes, histone deacetylase are classified into class 1, class 2 and class 3 HDAC. HDAC inhibitors leads to accumulation of acetylated nuclear histones in both tumor and normal tissues, providing an alternate marker for the biological activity of HDAC inhibitors. Inhibition of HDAC also results in acetylation transcription factors such as GATA-1, p53 and estrogen receptor-alpha. HDIs are potent anti-proliferative agents with moderately little effect on normal tissues.
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Based on applications, histone deacetylase inhibitors are categorized into oncology, neurology and others diseases. Presently there are four approved HDI products in the market namely Vorinostat (Zolinza), Romidepsin (Istodax), Vidaza and Dacogen. Consequently, global biopharmaceutical companies are conducting research for its application in different indications.
North America leads the histone deacetylase inhibitors market with rapid acceptance of these products in this region. Globally, this market would be growing at a very rapid pace owing to a tremendous potential of this class of drugs in oncology therapy. Rising incidence of oncology and aging population would be the driving factors for this market.
Some of the key players in this market include Merck & Co., Inc., Celgene Corporation, Eisai Pharmaceuticals, Novartis, Acetylon Pharmaceuticals, Celleron Therapeutics, Envivo Pharmaceuticals and Pfizer, Inc. These companies are aiming to discover new products in this class, through prospective pipeline, collaborations and ventures.
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