Spasticity is a medical condition where muscles get continuously contracted. Muscle contraction leads to muscle stiffness and tightening, affecting normal muscle movement in individuals affected with spasticity. Injury to the part of the brain or spinal cord which controls voluntary movement of the muscles can cause spasticity. The damage triggers a change in balance of neural signaling between the central nervous system and the muscles.
Spasticity can occur due to various medical conditions such as cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and traumatic brain injury. According to the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, there are approximately 12 million people affected by spasticity in the world; of these nearly 80% of the individuals affected by spasticity have spasticity. In the U.S., nearly 500,000 people have cerebral palsy; of these 400,000 have cerebral palsy associated spasticity. An estimated 400,000 individuals are affected by multiple sclerosis in the U.S. and around 320,000 individuals with multiple sclerosis disorder have spasticity.
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Spasticity can occur due to numerous other conditions such as injury to the spinal cord, brain damage due to lack of oxygen, encephalitis, meningitis, phenylketonuria, Lou Gehrig's disease, and adrenoleukodystrophy. Spasticity symptoms include muscle tightening and uncontrollable spasm mostly in legs and arms. It can also lead to joint pain and lower back pain. In adverse conditions, spasticity can cause restricted movement, extreme muscle contractions, affect protein synthesis in muscle, urinary tract infection, chronic constipation, pressure sores, and inhibit longitudinal muscle growth.
Various treatments are available for spasticity based on cause, age of patient, and spasticity severity. Physical therapy is used to maintain or improve muscle mobility, increase strength and muscle coordination, use of braces, and electrical stimulation. Other spasticity treatments include oral medications and in some cases neuro-surgical procedures such as intrathecal baclofen (ITB) pumps and selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR). On June 06, 2017, Ipsen announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for expanded use of Dysport (abobotulinumtoxinA) injection for treating spasticity in adults with lower limb spasticity. In July 2016, the medication had received approval to treat pediatric patients with lower limb spasticity and in July 2015, the medication was approved for the treatment of upper limb spasticity in adults.
Oral medication for treatment of spasticity is generally considered when spasticity symptoms become adverse and start affecting daily muscle functioning in an individual. Spasticity medication is used in combination of one or more drugs. Spasticity oral medication comprises the use of benzodiazepines, imidazole, and gamma-amino butyric acid analogs.
Increasing awareness, growing research, changing lifestyle, advancements in the health care industry, launch of novel therapeutics, and rising per capita income in emerging markets are expected to drive the spasticity treatment market during the forecast period. However, lack of disease awareness in emerging economies, overall high cost of treatment, stringent government regulations, and unfavorable reimbursement are likely to restrain the market.
Geographically, the global spasticity treatment market has been segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America dominates the global spasticity treatment market due of increasing population, rising geriatric population, increasing number of screening procedures, presence of leading manufacturers, and technological advancements. North America is closely followed by Europe and Asia Pacific. Asia Pacific is an emerging market for spasticity treatment because of increasing health care expenditure, rising population, and growing awareness.
Key players in the global spasticity treatment market are Codman & Shurtleff, Inc., Medtronic, Inc., InMed Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Ipsen, Orient Pharma Co., Ltd., Taj Pharmaceuticals Limited, MediciNova, Inc., Sanofi, and Genentech, Inc., among others.
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