Vaccination is termed as a cost-effective and efficient means of preventing various infectious disorders. The use of common vaccines has curbed the widespread transmission of diseases such as polio and measles in developing as well as developed regions. Oral vaccines exhibit the potential to take immunization to a new level of excellence. Although most vaccines are delivered via the parenteral route, oral vaccines are considered to be a feasible & cost-effective alternative employed for the prevention of non-mucosal transmitted infections. Orally administered vaccines are processed by the digestive tract's immune system, referred to as the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). To increase immunity against vital disorders such as influenza and tuberculosis (TB), new oral vaccines are being produced in developed countries.
Elimination of needles in the vaccination process and their safe & cost effective nature are driving the oral vaccines market remarkably. The rising prevalence of infectious diseases in developing countries, resistance to existing vaccines, and bioterrorism are some of the factors expected to push the market from 2017 to 2025. However, oral vaccination is considered to be less effective compared to vaccines administered via parenteral routes, as in the former method, antigens undergo digestion in the gastrointestinal tract prior to the induction of immune response. This could restrain the market over the forecast period.
The global oral vaccines market can be segmented on the basis of vaccine type into the live (attenuated), inactive, recombinant, and other varieties. The inactive segment accounted for a major chunk of the market revenue in 2016 due to its safety and cost-effectiveness. It is likely to remain dominant over the forecast period owing to the expanding patient pool in national immunization programs.
Based on application, the global oral vaccines market is divided into the following categories: polio, rabies, tuberculosis, influenza, respiratory infections, HIV, cholera, rotavirus, and others. The influenza and HIV segments constituted a major portion of the revenue in 2016, due to their rising prevalence in developing countries. Oral vaccines for tuberculosis, HIV, and influenza are projected to dominate the market over the forecast period due to their increasing development by key players and comparatively lower cost.
By end-user, the global oral vaccines market is split into the following groups: hospitals, government vaccination programs, clinics, and research institutes. Clinics and government vaccination programs held major market shares in 2016, which is attributed to the government participation in the prevention and treatment of infectious disorders in developing countries and rising investments by key players in R&D of invention of better and efficient medication. Government vaccination programs are estimated to remain dominant in the market by 2025 due to the resistance of the population for existing vaccines and favorable government reimbursement schemes.
Geographically, the global oral vaccines market is distributed over North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America captured a prominent market share in 2016 owing to the high purchasing power of the region’s population to afford costly vaccines and the periodical mass immunization programs held by the government. The need to avoid the risk of contamination by needles & syringes and recent USFDA approvals for oral vaccines for infectious diseases such as tuberculosis & cholera are estimated to propel the oral vaccines market in North America during the forecast period. However, Asia Pacific is expected to witness a significant CAGR on account of the rising incidence of HIV and influenza in developing countries.
Major players operating in the global oral vaccines market include GlaxoSmithKline Plc., Merck & Co. Inc., Aventis (Sanofi S.A.), Swiss Serum and Vaccine Institute Berne, QUÍMICA SUIZA S.A., PaxVax Corporation, VALNEVA Canada Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., and Shanghai BravoBio Co., Ltd. Presently, a limited number of oral vaccines has been approved by regulatory authorities for human use and many more are in their later stages of clinical trials.
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