Aseptic meningitis is the inflammation on the protective membrane called ‘meninges’ covering the brain and spinal cord. Aseptic meningitis may be caused by infectious or non-infectious causes. Infectious causes include viral, bacterial, and rarely fungal. 80-90% of aseptic meningitis cases are caused by enteroviruses; but other causes include arboviruses, herpes viruses, measles, mumps, and human immunodeficiency virus. Non-infectious causes include drugs (including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, intravenous immune globulin), sarcoidosis, vasculitis (caused by autoimmune diseases like lupus or Sjogren's syndrome), and malignancy, including metastases to the meninges.
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Most common symptoms includes fever, body ache, a painful headache, fatigue, and loss of appetite. It can occur at any age but is most common in children under the age of five. People with a weakened immune system caused by organ or bone marrow transplantation, disease, or medication (such as chemotherapy) or suffering from diabetes or AIDs are at enhanced risk of developing aseptic meningitis. The incidence of aseptic meningitis has been reported as 11 per 100,000 population per year. Depending on the type of cause, the male to female ratio may vary. Enteroviruses affects males 1.5 times more than females, while mumps virus affects males 3 times more than females. No specific treatment is available for aseptic meningitis. The patient is managed with supportive therapy. Treatment options may vary depending on specific causes. Most patients with aseptic meningitis completely recover with specific treatment within one to two weeks.
Based on treatment, the aseptic meningitis treatment market is segmented as antiviral (acyclovir, ganciclovir, foscavir, and valacyclovir), corticosteroids (dexamethasone, prednisone, and prednisolone), antibiotics (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, gentamicin, and doxycycline), antifungal (amphotericin B, fluconazole, and flucytosine), and other supporting medications like IV fluids and anti-nausea agents. The antiviral segment is expected to expand followed by the antibiotic segment as 80-90% of aseptic meningitis cases are caused by viral infection. Based on molecule type, the aseptic meningitis treatment market is segmented into small molecules and biologics.
Biologics segment is expected to expand as most researchers like Bristol-Myer Squib Company is focused on development of biologics like ipilimumab, nivolumab, and bevacizumab for treatment of aseptic meningitis. As no specific treatment is available to treat aseptic meningitis the main factor that drives aseptic meningitis treatment market. Additionally, increase in incidence of viral infections, increasing bone marrow transplants, and increase in use of chemotherapy are the factors that drive the aseptic meningitis treatment market. However, since the disease is managed by supportive medication and most patients recover from it, is a factor that restrains the growth of the aseptic meningitis treatment market.
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In terms of geography, the aseptic meningitis treatment market is segmented into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. North America dominates the aseptic meningitis treatment market, followed by Europe, due to the higher incidence rate of viral infections, increase in research and development expenditure, and availability of developed healthcare infrastructure. Asia Pacific is an emerging market for aseptic meningitis treatment due to the developing healthcare infrastructure, increase in patient awareness, and rising government expenditure in the healthcare industry. However, lack of proper treatment options and poor patient awareness are factors restraining the aseptic meningitis treatment market in regions such as Middle East & Africa.
Major players operating in the aseptic meningitis treatment market include Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A, Matinas BioPharma Holdings, Inc., Viamet Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Genentech, Inc., Pfizer. Inc. and Bristol-Myers Squibb Company.
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