Adhesives act as a glue to stick the surfaces of different substrates together. Adhesives can be applied using different means such as by brush, roller, in beads or by spraying. Adhesives applied by spraying are called spray adhesives. These spray adhesives wet the base of the joining surfaces and uniformly transfers the load between the merged surfaces to enhance better and stronger bonding. These adhesives can also contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are emitted during its application. Regulations from local and national governments of different regions such as North America and Europe have tightened the emission levels for VOCs. For example, in the U.S., the EPA has certain limits for emission of VOCs in adhesives in states such as Virginia, California, and Illinois. Similarly, the European Commission and countries such as Germany and France also have their own regulations controlling the emission of VOCs from adhesives.
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Spray adhesives are classified into water-based, solvent-base, and hot melt-based adhesives. They can be used on surfaces of materials such as paper, wood, film, leather, fabric, glass, plastic, cardboard, and canvas. It is used in a wide range of applications which include construction, packaging, furniture, automotive, textile, and others.
Water-based spray adhesives contain solid adhesive dispersed in an aqueous phase. Materials used to form link between solid adhesive particles and aqueous phase include water-soluble additives such as surfactants, protective colloids, and emulsifiers. These adhesives are based on natural or synthetic polymers such as polyvinyl acetate or polyvinyl acetate ethylene copolymers. It contains minimal or no volatile organic compounds. This is driving the demand for water-based spray adhesives in developed regions. These adhesives are used in laminating, packaging, product assembly, and book binding, among other applications. The water-based spray adhesive segment accounted for the largest share of the global spray adhesives market. Stringent environmental regulations in developed countries such as North America Sand Europe are a major factor boosting the demand of water-based spray adhesives in these regions.
Solvent-based spray adhesives contain polymers such as polychloroprene, polyurethane, acrylic, silicone, and natural and synthetic polymers dissolved in hydrocarbon solvents which can be flammable. The volume of VOCs in this product is very high. Type of polymer determines the performance of solvent-based spray adhesives. Its applications includes handbag linings, labels in appliances, pipe insulation in construction, attaching fabric to foam in furniture upholstery, and sticking door gaskets in automotive industry.
Hot melt-based spray adhesives are thermoplastic adhesives which offer immediate bonding in foam, fabric, thin metals, electronics, etc. It contains thermoplastic polymers such as ethylene-vinyl acetate and polyolefin or metallocene. They are solid in room temperature and are applied to materials in the molten state. It sets quickly, ranging from a few seconds to a couple of minutes based on the formulation. Handling and packaging of this product is a challenge owing to its tacky nature.
The construction industry accounted for a large share of the global spray adhesives market in 2016 and it expected to witness the highest growth during the forecast period. This industry is followed by furniture, packaging, automotive, and textile industries. The furniture industry is growing due to increased standard of living, which is boosting the demand for superior upholstery materials for furniture.
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In terms of regions, North America is expected to dominate the global spray adhesives market during the forecast period. It anticipated to be followed by Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle East & Africa. Asia Pacific is anticipated to witness a faster growth rate with increasing construction and automotive industry using solvent and hot melt-based adhesives.
Major players operating in the spay adhesives market include 3M, Henkel AG, H.B. Fuller, Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide, Genkem, Power Adhesives, and Indasol.
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